Over the past couple of months, I have been working on updating the macOS stdenv in Nixpkgs. This has significant impact on users of Nix/Nixpkgs on macOS. So, I want to explain what’s being updated, what the benefits are, and how we can minimize breakages.
1 macOS/Darwin stdenv changes
First, to summarize the changes that impact stdenv and the Darwin infrastructure. The PR is available at NixOS/nixpkgs PR #56744. This update has been in the works for the last few months, and is currently in the staging-next branch, waiting to be merged in NixOS/nixpkgs PR #60491. It should land on master and nixpkgs-unstable in the next few days. The main highlights are —
- Change default LLVM toolchain from 5 to 7. LLVM 5 stdenv is still
- Upgrade Apple SDK from 10.10 to 10.12.
- Update libSystem symbols from 10.10 (XNU 3789.1.32) to 10.12 (XNU 3789.1.32).
- Removed old patches to support old stdenv in Qt 5 and elsewhere.
These macOS SDK upgrades are equivalent to setting
-mmacosx-version-min to 10.12 in XCode. As a result, we will break
compatibility with macOS before 10.12.
2 Why do we need to set a minimum macOS version?
Without knowing internals of Nixpkgs, it might not be clear why we need to set a minimum macOS version. For instance with Linux, we are able to support any Linux kernel in Nixpkgs without any problem. The answer to this requires some understanding of how the kernel and userspace function.
Nixpkgs is able to support multiple Linux kernels because we can use multiple Libc’s at one time. For any executable, a Nix closure will include both its own Libc and the dynamic linker in its closure. This works in Linux where multiple Libc’s can be used, but not on macOS where only one Libc is available.
In short, Linux and macOS deal with compatibility between built binaries in different ways. They represent two opposite ends in how Unix-like kernels maintain compatibility with their userspace binaries.
2.1 Linux syscall compatibility
The kernel is responsible for managing core operating system functions such as start-up, memory management, device abstractions, and process isolation. For it to function, the kernel needs to interact with the rest of the operating system which is collectively referred to as “userspace”. Executables in userspace use “syscalls” to tell the kernel what to do. These syscalls are very low-level and usually not called directly by a process. Instead, an abstraction layer is provided by the standard C library, or Libc.
Linux is unique among operating systems due to the fact that the Kernel and Libc are developed independently. Linux is maintained by creator Linus Torvalds and a community of contributors. Glibc, the most popular Libc for Linux, is maintained by the GNU project. As a result, Linux has a strong separation between Syscalls and Libc.
Linux does not tie itself to any specific Libc. Even though Glibc is used in almost all distros, many alternatives are available. For instance, Musl provides a more lightweight version of Glibc, while Bionic is the Libc used in the Android operating system. In addition, multiple versions of each of these Libc’s can be used on any one kernel, even at the same time. This can become very common when using multiple Nixpkgs versions at one time.
To accomplish this, Linux provides a stable list of syscalls that it has maintained across many versions. This is specified for i386 at arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_32.tbl in the kernel tree. The syscalls specified here are the interface through which the Libc communicates with the kernel. As a result, applications built in 1992 can run on a modern kernel, provided it comes with copies of all its libraries1.
2.2 macOS Libc compatibility
The macOS Libc is called libSystem. It is available on all macOS
/usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib. This library is the main
interface that binary compatibility is maintained in macOS. Unlike
Linux, macOS maintains a stable interface in libSystem that all
executables are expected to link to. This interface is guaranteed by
Apple to be stable between versions.
In Nixpkgs, we maintain this compatibility through a list of symbols
that are exported by libSystem. This is a simple text list and is
available for viewing at
The symbol list is created by listing symbols (
nm) on the minimum
macOS version that we support (for my PR, 10.12). We do some linking
tricks to ensure that everything that we build in Nixpkgs only
contains those symbols. This means that we can reproducibly build on
newer versions of macOS, while maintaining compatibility with older
macOS versions. Unfortunately, newer symbols introduced in later
versions cannot be used even on systems that have those symbols.
A side effect of macOS design, is that fully static executables are not supported in macOS as they are on Linux. Without a stable syscall interface, there is nothing to provide compatibility between versions. As a result, Apple does not support this type of linking2.
There is no mandated reason why we need to use libSystem directly. In fact, some languages like Go have attempted to instead use the syscall interface directly. There is no reason why this couldn’t work, however, upgrades between versions will almost certainly break binaries. Go eventually abandoned this scheme in time for Go 1.12 (proposed by Nixpkgs macOS contributor copumpkin!)
Some other examples may be useful. They mostly fall on one side or the other of the Syscall / Libc divide —
- FreeBSD - breaks syscall compatibility between major releases, should use Libc for longterm binary compatibility.
- OpenBSD - similarly, changes syscall interface, perhaps even more often than FreeBSD3.
- NetBSD - apparently has maintained syscall compatibility since 1992. 4
- Windows, Solaris, Fuchsia - I cannot find any information on these and how they handle binary compatibility.
2.4 LLVM triple
As a side note, this difference can be clearly seen in how we specify target systems. The LLVM triple is a 3 or 4-part string specifying what we want to build for. The parts of the triple correspond to:
<cpu>— the CPU architecture that we are building for. Examples include
<vendor>— an arbitrary string specifying the vendor for the toolchain. In Nixpkgs, this should always be
<kernel>— the kernel to build for (
<abi>— the kernel ABI to use. On Linux, this corresponds to the Libc we are using (
When building for Linux, we can build for any version of Linux at one
time. No version information is required. In addition, we must specify
what “ABI” we want to use. In Nix, this is not very important because
the Libc is provided by the closure. In fact, Nix has its own version
of the LLVM triple called a Nix system tuple that omits the
portion altogether! It corresponds to
<cpu>-<kernel> from the LLVM
In comparison, when building for BSDs, we must specify which
version of the kernel we are building for. In addition, we leave off
<abi> portion, because there is only one Libc available for
these platforms. They are even included in the same tree as the
kernel. Examples of BSD triples include,
3 Compatibility table
Looking through the old versions, I’ve compiled a list of what I think are the corresponding macOS versions for each Nixpkgs release. As you can see, we try to support at least 3 previous macOS releases. This also happens to be about what Apple supports through security updates5.
|Nixpkgs release||macOS version|
|19.09||10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15?|
|19.03||10.116, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14|
|18.09||10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14|
|18.03||10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14|
|17.09||10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13|
|17.03||10.10, 10.11, 10.12|
|16.09||10.10, 10.11, 10.12|
|16.03||10.9?, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12|
We know that some users are stuck on older versions of macOS due to reasons outside of their control. As a result, we will try to support the 19.03 branch for a little bit longer than is usually done. If your organization uses 10.11, it might be a good idea to update to a newer version along with your update to Nixpkgs 19.09.
My main goal has been to show better how Nixpkgs and macOS system interact. I got a little bit sidetracked exploring differences in binary compatibility between different operating systems. But, this should help users to better understand the differences in how macOS and Linux works in relation to Nixpkgs.
It would be interesting to test this in practice. Finding a Libc that would work might be the hardest part. Even better if we could use Nix’s closures!
StackOverflow question at https://stackoverflow.com/questions/844819/how-to-static-link-on-os-x.
Some more details on NetBSD’s ABI are available at http://www.jp.netbsd.org/gallery/presentations/joerg/asiabsdcon2016/asiabsdcon2016.pdf
macOS updates come out about every year and Apple offers about 3 months support. More information is available at https://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/47664/what-is-apples-policy-for-supporting-security-updates-on-older-versions-of-os-x.
There is an issue with building on 10.11 with the new swift-corelibs derivation. As a result, you need to use prebuilt version to avoid this issue.